About specialty

Diagnosis and treatment of brain and nervous system problems

A neurologist is a doctor who deals with diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems. His interests include the brain and spinal cord as well as the connections between them and other organs and muscles. Neurologist assesses the activity of the nervous system by examining body's reactions to stimuli and taking into account the additional test results.

Neurologist deals with diseases which are damaging the nervous system. These include infections of the nervous system, neurocutaneous or cerebrospinal fluid disorders. They are also injuries of the nervous system, dementia syndromes, movement disorders, neuropathies and tumours. They may have a genetic background, appear in a childhood as congenital diseases, or injuries in an adulthood.

• degenerative disease of the spine

• sciatica

• migraine

• peripheral neuropathies

• epilepsy

• intracerebral haemorrhage

• meningitis

• ischemic stroke (cerebral infarction)

• transient ischemic attack

• brain tumours

• injuries of the nervous system

• neurocutaneous disorders

• Alzheimer's disease

• Parkinson's disease

• Huntington's disease

• Wilson's disease

• myasthenia gravis

• myopathy

• hydrocephalus

Many neurological diseases can be detected easily and treated quickly. It is important to go to a doctor as soon as possible, who, based on the symptoms and results of simple tests, will make a diagnosis and start the treatment.

• headaches and face pains (especially if they last a long time and their cause has not been identified, or if your current treatment has not worked)

• sleep disturbances (difficulty falling asleep, broken sleep) not caused by stress, time zone changes or pain

• persistent headache, neck pain, limb pain, when the cause has not been identified or if the current treatment has not been effective

• various types of involuntary movements and nervous tics

• muscle weakness, stiffness and increased tension, muscle twitching and cramps with no apparent cause, paresis

• dizziness, imbalance, uncoordinated movements or feeling unstable

• problems with memory, lack of orientation in a known area, loss of the ability to perform current tasks, and problems with concentration

• feeling of numbness or tingling not caused by pressure

• impaired eyesight, smell, taste, sensation, speech or hearing, occurring suddenly or from time to time

• disorders with urination and stools

After an interview with the patient, neurologist starts the examination with a visual inspection. They check the patient's type of build, bone and muscle condition, and posture. Then they examine the mobility, shape, dimensions and condition of the cranial nerves. Neurological examination also includes checking the upper and lower limbs, and the torso in terms of their mobility, sensation and reflexes. The tests used by neurologist also include examination of the fundus, meningeal symptoms, as well as the assessment of speech, memory, orientation and gait.

Examination of each patient can be slightly different, depending on the reported symptoms and general condition. When the physical examination does not give a clear diagnosis, neurologist may order additional laboratory, imaging and electrophysiological tests.

Additional tests include:

  • electroencephalography (EEG)
  • electromyography (EMG)
  • computed tomography
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • angiography
  • Doppler ultrasound of the arteries
  • positron emission tomography (PET)
  • lumbar puncture
  • X-ray of the skull and spine
  • test of evoked potentials
  • biochemistry
  • genetic tests

Based on the test results, neurologist will be able to determine the cause of the symptoms and will recommend appropriate outpatient or hospital treatment. Part of the treatment is neurological rehabilitation, especially after stroke, cranial trauma or in certain diseases (Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis).

Neurological disorders must not be underestimated, and if detected early, they can be effectively treated.

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